Necrologia mediolatina

Franz Brunhölzl (1924 - 2014)

After the end of the national-socialist rule, neo-humanism flourished in Germany, and this also benefited specialised disciplines such as the Latin philology of the Middle Ages. Franz Brunhölzl, who recently died in his ninetieth year in Munich, actively contributed to this rebirth of Medieval Latin studies in Germany. Brunhölzl was born in St. Veit (Bavaria) into a middle class family (his father was a civil servant). He attended the “Humanistisches Gymnasium” (high school with concentration on the ancient languages) in Metten and Landshut, and graduated in March 1942. Like most of his contemporaries, he was drafted into the army as soon as he had completed high school. He was wounded on the Eastern front and dismissed from the army in November 1944. In the same year he began his studies at the German Karls- University in Prague. After a break in his studies which was caused by the war he moved to Munich and specialised in Medieval Latin, Classical philology, ancient history, and Byzantine studies. In July 1951 he received his doctorate for his work on the Florilegium Treverense, which he had completed under the supervision of Paul Lehmann. A shortened version of this work, which follows in the footsteps of Ludwig Traube and illustrates the reception of the Classical authors in the Middle Ages, appeared as late as 1964 in the first volume of the Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch, which was dedicated to Lehman’s memory. The edition of the Florilegium Treverense itself appeared in volume 3 of the same journal (1966). Ten years after he obtained his doctorate, Franz Brunhölzl completed a study on the cathedral school of Freising, as a result of which he received the venia legendi at Munich. As was common in that period, his career developed very quickly. In January 1964 he moved to Erlangen, which had just established a new professorship for Latin Philology of the Middle Ages; he was accompanied by a young assistant, Fidel Rädle, who himself was to become an important Medieval Latinist later on. The luggage of the two men contained the remnants of Paul Lehmann’s († 1964) library, which had been largely destroyed in a bombing raid; it was to become the nucleus of the Erlangen Medieval Latin library and contained several rarities such as Medieval Latin publications from Italy of around 1900 and the Plummer’s edition of Bede, which Lehman had received as a gift from W.M. Lindsay. Brunhölzl’s indebtedness to the Munich tradition can be seen from the fact that his very first public lecture bore the same title as the one Traube held 75 years earlier at the University of Munich: “Classical Roman Literature in the Middle Ages: Manuscript Transmission and Literary Continuity.” As early as November 1964 Brunhölzl moved again, this time to Marburg where he had been offered the “Ordinariat” (Head of Department). While still employed at Marburg, in the year 1969/1970 he lectured at Heidelberg, but declined an offer of a professorship there. In 1975 he returned to Munich and succeeded Bernhard Bischoff, who had retired in 1974. On the occasion of Bischoff’s sixty-fifth birthday, Brunhölzl honoured him with a festschrift; a festschrift in Brunhölzl’s honour appeared in 1989 with the title Tradition und Wertung. He lectured until 1990, but even afterwards he offered, among others, courses in Latin – and this despite a visual handicap. Franz Brunhölzl was not a prolific writer. His area of specialty was the early Middle Ages. His colleagues took notice of his editions and studies of Alcuin, of Einhard, and of Carolingian works such as the anonymous epic De Karolo rege et Leone papa. In 2001 his last major work appeared with the title Studien zum geistigen Leben in Passau im 8. und 9. Jahrhundert (Studies of the cultural life in eighth- and ninth-century Passau). His name will, however, always be connected with the ambitious project of a universal history of Latin Literature in the Middle Ages. It was published in two volumes in 1975 (“From Cassiodorus to the end of the Carolingian renaissance”) and in 1992 (“The period from the end of the Carolingian era to the middle of the tenth century”), and was also translated into French (Turnhout, 1991 and 1996). Despite being announced several times, no continuation was ever published, and the planned monumental oeuvre remained incomplete. Brunhölzl dedicated the History to the memory of his teacher Paul Lehmann; in the preface he states that Lehmann’s lectures constituted the major motivation for the book. It is said that Brunhölzl’s History is a geminatum opus of Manitius (with reference to Max Manitius, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, published in three volumes from 1911 to 1931); this is correct insofar as the two authors pursued different goals. While Manitius conceived of his work as a collection of single articles describing individual medieval Latin texts and paying special attention to their tramsmission, Brunhölzl, who could rely on the foundation laid by Manitius, decided to strike out in a different direction. In the preface to the first volume he writes: “I do not intend to present the material in the manner of a handbook, which would allow very little room for a personal interpretation and evaluation, nor do I attempt to boldly pursue one concept, one original idea over the centuries.” Instead, Brunhölzl conceived of a book which would demonstrate the colourful variety of those writings “which for a thousand years constituted European literature per se.” He therefore offered an “appreciation and classification of each of the authors and their works,” which demonstrated his profound knowledge of the texts, but betrayed a highly subjective approach which at times can leave the reader dissatisfied. Brunhölzl’s History is divided up into regions, and like his predecessor he offers smaller monographic units within the larger sections, though he connects them more tightly than Manitius had done. Scholars greatly appreciate his extensive bibliographical appendix to both volumes (vol. 2, pp. 557–648) for both their research and their lectures. With the death of Franz Brunhölzl Medieval Latinists have lost an expert in the field of the Latin literature of the Middle Ages; with Brunhölzl, the student of Lehmann and successor of Bischoff, we have lost an outstanding representative of those Munich scholars who moulded Medieval Latin philology and the study of the Middle Ages for several generations.

Michele C. Ferrari
The Journal of Medieval Latin 25 (2015), vii-ix

Paul Klopsch (1920 - 2012)

Die Einführungen von Paul Klopsch zur mittellateinischen Verslehre (1972) und zu den Dichtungslehren (1980) eröffneten zwei Generationen von Mittellateinern und Mediävisten den Zugang zum lateinischen Erbe des europäischen Mittelalters. Dabei – so gab er selbst freimütig zu – sei Mittellatein nicht seine erste Wahl gewesen. Geboren wurde Paul Klopsch am 2. Januar 1920 in Düsseldorf. Schon das Abitur in Köln 1938 schien ihn für eine glänzende Laufbahn zu prädestinieren, aber wie viele andere seiner Generation prägten zuerst Drill, Wehr- und Kriegsdienst seinen Werdegang. Drei Jahre nach Kriegsende kehrte er aus der Gefangenschaft in der Sowjetunion zurück und durfte sich an der Universität zu Köln einschreiben. Bis 1953 studierte er hier Klassische Philologie und Germanistik. Die nächsten Jahre verbrachte Paul Klopsch als Lehrer für Deutsch und Latein im Gymnasium und gleichzeitig als Jungforscher an der Universität Köln, wo er 1955 mit einer Arbeit über den Wortschatz Notker Labeos auf dem Gebiet des Fühlens promoviert wurde. Seit 1956 äußerte sich sein Interesse für die Latinität des Mittelalters darin, daß er einführende Übungen auf diesem Feld hielt, das ihn zunehmend beschäftigte. Im Jahr 1959 erhielt er an der Universität Köln eine Assistentenstelle bei Karl Langosch (1903-1992). Zusammen etablierten sie das damals in der deutschen akademischen Landschaft expandierende Fach Mittellatein und machten aus Köln ein breit mediävistisch ausgerichtetes Hauptzentrum der noch jungen universitären Disziplin. 1964 erfolgte die Habilitation mit Untersuchungen zu Pseudo-Ovidius De vetula, dessen Druckfassung 1967 rasch zu einem Referenzwerk im Fach wurde. Danach ging alles schnell, wie Paul Klopsch selbst noch Jahrzehnte später mit einer Mischung aus Staunen und ironischer Distanz erzählte: Da Franz Brunhölzl, der die erste Professur für Lateinische Philologie des Mittelalters in Erlangen angetreten hatte, nach Marburg gewechselt war, wurde Paul Klopsch im Januar 1966 zu seinem Nachfolger als außerordentlicher Professor und schon im Dezember desselben Jahres zum Ordinarius ernannt. Gestärkt durch seine Erfahrungen in Köln, widmete er sich in den folgenden Jahren dem Aufbau des Faches in Erlangen, insbesondere der Betreuung der Studierenden und Doktoranden, engagierte sich aber auch in der akademischen Selbstverwaltung und bekleidete 1979 bis 1981 das Amt des Dekans der Philosophischen Fakultät II. Am Ende des WS 87/88 wurde Paul Klopsch emeritiert und mit einer Festschrift geehrt. Die Forschungsarbeit stellte er aber keineswegs ein und druckte etwa noch 2003 einen lesenswerten Beitrag zur Überlieferung der lateinischen Literatur im Mittelalter in Egert Pöhlmanns Einführung in die Überlieferungsgeschichte und die Textkritik der antiken Literatur ab. Diese monographische Abhandlung stellte abermals die Eigenschaften seiner Forschungsarbeit unter Beweis: Eine breite Kenntnis der Literatur und der Sprache des lateinischen Mittelalters, das Interesse für das Nachleben der antiken Literatur, eine fundierte Aufmerksamkeit für die materielle Überlieferung der Texte sowie ein breiter mediävistischer Horizont zeichneten sie aus. Paul Klopsch verband philologische Akribie mit der Gabe, seine Stoffe lebendig und witzig zu vermitteln. Als er 2005 anläßlich der Feier zu seinem 85. Geburtstag ein letztes Mal ans Pult in der Mittellateinischen Bibliothek trat und eine typisch selbstironische Rede hielt, konnte er seine Zuhörer begeistern. Paul Klopsch verstarb am 6. Mai 2012 in Erlangen.

Michele C. Ferrari

Karl Langosch (1903 - 1992)

Rektor und Senat der Universität zu Köln geben in tiefer Trauer bekannt, daß der emeritierte ordentliche Professor der Mittellateinischen Philogie Dr. phil. habil. Karl Langosch am 10. März 1992, kurz vor Vollendung seines 89. Lebensjahres, verstorben ist. Er war im WS 1957/58 als ao. Professor nach Köln berufen und zum Leiter der neugegründeten Mittellateinischen Abteilung am Institut für Altertumskunde bestellt worden, wo er bis zum Ende des SS 1969 lehrte. Der gebürtige Berliner studierte an der Universität Berlin Germanistik, vor allem bei Gustav Roethe, und Mittellateinische Philologie bei Karl Strecker und wurde 1932 mit einer germanistischen Dissertation über 'Die Sprache des Göttweiger Trojanerkriegs' zum Dr.phil. promoviert. Vorausgegangen war 1929 seine noch heute gültige Ausgabe der mittellateinischen Märchenepen 'Asinarius' und 'Rapularius'. Als Mitarbeiter am 'Deutschen Wörterbuch' der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften von 1929 bis 1936, als Lehrbeauftragter für Mittellateinische Philologie an der Universität Berlin seit 1936 und vor allem durch zahlreiche Artikel für 'Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters – Verfasserlexikon', das er in der Nachfolge von Wolfgang Stammlers als verantwortlicher Herausgeber von 1943 bis 1955 zum Abschluß geführt hat, erwarb sich Herr Langosch umfängliche Kennntnisse sowohl in der deutschen als auch in der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters. Daraus resultierte eine Sehweise, die für sein Forschen und Lehren insgesamt charakteristisch wurde: Er begriff die Literaturen des abendländischen Mittelalters als ein "Mit- und Ineinander", als lediglich in der Sprache sich unterscheidende Produkte einer einheitlich lateinisch geprägten Bildungskultur in Europa. Diese 'mediävistische' Sicht ließ ihn auch den hohen Forschungsbedarf auf dem Feld der mittellateinischen Literatur erkennen, der vorrangig durch die Erarbeitung der Grundlagen, d.h. durch Texteditionen und Interpretationen, gedeckt werden mußte. Früchte solchen Bemühens waren die Ausgabe des 'Registrum multorum auctorum' Hugos von Trimberg, mit der sich Herr Langosch 1941 in Berlin für Germanische und Mittellateinische Philologie habilitierte, Untersuchungen zum 'Waltharius', 'Ruodlieb' und Archipoeta (1936-1943) sowie die 'Politische Dichtung um Kaiser Friedrich Barbarossa' (1943). In dieser Sammlung fügte Herr Langosch den Originaltexten erstmals eine deutsche Versübertragung hinzu, um die mittellateinische Poesie auch einem größeren Publikum zu erschließen. Später folgten weitere solche Anthologien mit lateinischen Dramen, Epen und Liedern des Mittelalters (1954-1968). In der Reihe 'Geschichtsschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit' deren Gesamtausgabe er seit 1943 betreute, erschienen seine Prosaübersetzungen der Briefe Kaiser Heinrichs IV. (1954) sowie der Vita Engelberts von Köln des Cäsarius von Heisterbach (1955), und 1960 eröffnete er mit der Edition und Übersetzung der 'Brevis Germaniae Descriptio' von Johannes Cochläus die neue Reihe der 'Ausgewählten Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters'. Seit der Berufung nach Köln, die er stets als Ansporn und Forderung an sich selbst empfunden hat, konzentrierte Herr Langosch alle Kräfte darauf, die mittelalterlichen Literaturen Europas als zusammengehöriges Ganzes aufzuzeigen und für ihren mittellateinischen Anteil Grundlegendes bereitzustellen. Vorlesungen, deren Titel "sein" Programm verkündeten, wurden zu Schriften, die noch heute Wert besitzen: so die Einführung 'Das lateinische Mittelalter' (1963), literarhistorisch wertend und interpretierend 'Die deutsche Literatur des lateinischen mittelalters in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung' und 'Die Überlieferungsgeschichte der mittellateinischen Literatur' (1964) sowie die 'Profile des lateinischen Mittelalters' (1965), die Erzieherrolle des Mittellateins betonend 'Die europäische Literatur des lateinischen Mittelalters' (1966). So ist es Herrn Langosch gelungen, das für die Kölner Universität neue Fach 'Mittellateinische Philologie' zwischen den gestandenen Disziplinen der Klassischen Philologie, Älteren Germanistik und Mittelalterliche Geschichte erfolgreich aufzubauen und zu etablieren. Das dokumentieren die von ihm angeregten Dissertationen und Habilitationsschriften – in der Mehrzal kommentierte Erstausgaben mittellateinischer Dichtungen – und vor allem die von ihm begründeten, schon bald international wirkenden Publikationsorgane 'Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch' (1964ff.), die 'Beihefte' dazu (1968-1978) und 'Mittellateinische Studien und Texte' (1965ff.). Auch nach seiner Emeritierung wurde Herr Langosch nicht müde, wie gerade die beiden 1990 erschienen Veröffentlichungen 'Mittellatein und Europa. Führung in die Hauptliteratur des Mittelalters' und 'Europas Latein des Mittelalters. Wesen und Wirkung' zeigen, die originalen Charakterzüge der mittellateinischen Sprache und Literatur hervorzuheben und den Wert "seines" Fachs für alle mediävistischen Disziplinen zu betonen. Mitten in der Arbeit an einem Buch über die lateinischen und volkssprachigen Versionen der Alexandersage im Mittelalter hat ihm der Tod die Feder aus der Hand genommen. Die Universität zu Köln wird den engagierten Forscher und Lehrer Karl Langosch, der von hier aus die Mittellateinische Philologie als erster wirkungsvoll vertreten und ihr international Ansehen verschafft hat, in dankbarer Erinnerung behalten.

Köln, im Dezember 1992
Der Rektor
Bernhard König

Paul Lehmann (1884 - 1964)

Paul Lehmann, born in Braunschweig, died in his eightieth year, on 4 January 1964. To his fellow-students in Munich it was obvious that he would become Traube's successor as palaeographer and professor of mediaeval philology. Receiving the doctoral degree in 1907, he became docent for Latin literature of the Middle Ages at Munich in 1911, associate professor in 1921, professor in 1927. In Traube's last years Lehmann was his right-hand man. He played an important role in the production of Traube's Vorlesungen und Abhandlungen, especially of Volume II (1911), an introduction to Latin philology of the Middle Ages. He published two excellent monographs in Traube's Quellen und Untersuchungen, on Franciscus Modius and Johannes Sichardus. Then followed the constant stream of his contributions to the Sitzungsberichte der bayerischen Akademie, recently brought together, with other articles, in the five volumes of Erforschungen des Mittelalters (over 300 items). Lehmann's well-known Parodie im Mittelalter (1922) appeared in an enlarged edition in 1963. An extremely useful monograph is his Pseudo-Antike Literatur des Mittelalters (1927). He early realized the value of mediaeval library catalogues for tracing the history of culture and published a number of them in his notable Mittelalterliche Bibliothekskataloge Deutschlands und der Schweiz.
Though Lehmann's books and notes were destroyed by a bomb in the last war, his scholarly productivity continued with unabated zeal. Nor did an accident that lamed him cause him to cease his activities or to lose his courage and good humor. Lehmann assisted Max Manitius in the preparation of the third volume of the Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters. It ist deeply regrettable that he was unable to carry out his intention of preparing the much needed fourth volume.
Lehmann was in the first group of Corresponding Fellows to be chosen by the Mediaeval Academy of America (1926). Similar honors were bestowed on him by many of the leading academies of Europe: Berlin, Munich, Vienna, British Academy, Accademia dei Lincei, and others. A Festschrift entitled Liber Floridus, in honor of his sixty-fifth birthday, was published in 1950. Not only did Lehmann continue the high quality of Traube's work, but he trained an able successor, so that for many years Munich has been a great center for mediaeval studies and palaeography.

Harry Caplan, Taylor Starck und B.L. Ullmann
Speculum 40 (1965) 583.


Am Morgen des 4. Januar 1964 starb in seinem 80. Lebensjahr Paul Lehmann, eines der treuesten und langjährigsten Mitglieder der Akademie aus seiner Generation. Er war in Braunschweig geboren, als Sproß einer Kaufmannsfamilie. Schon in dem Schüler zeigte sich die Neigung zu geschichtlichen Studien, und früh wurde ihm das Forschen zur Leidenschaft; wie er in Erinnerungen, die er in schwerster Zeit niederschrieb, bekannte, hat es ihn als jungen Münchener Studenten, der viel mit seinem Bruder, einem Maler und dessen Freunden zusammen war, im Innersten angerührt zu sehen, wie aus den Händen der Künstler Dauerndes hervorging, und ihn beflügelt, sich ein ähnliches hohes Ziel zu setzen. Damals hatte er schon den Weg eingeschlagen, der ihm reichste Möglichkeiten, seine Wünsche zu verwirklichen, darbieten sollte.
Dem Studium in München war ein Semester in Göttingen vorausgegangen, wo er besonders bei Karl Brandi gehört hatte, und ein Hinweis von diesem war es, der ihn nun zu Ludwig Traube, seinem künftigen Lehrer, führte. Die Jahre des Studiums bei Traube, der ihm ein väterlicher Freund wurde, haben Lehmann für sein ganzes wissenschaftliches Leben Entscheidendes mitgegeben. Der geniale Philologe und Paläograph, der durch einen neue historische Sehweise und durch neue und fruchtbare Methoden einen internationalen Hörerkreis faszinierte und beherrschte, ließ seinen Schülern die Freiheit individueller Entfaltung. Lehmann legte damals den Grund zu der seltenen Kenntnis der Gelehrtengeschichte des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts, die ihn auszeichnete und die er schon in der Dissertation über Francicscus Modius (1908) und der Habilitationsschrift über Johannes Sichardus (1912), aber auch in späteren Arbeiten mit der Geschichte der Biliotheken und der Textüberlieferung ertragreich verwob. Im Kreise der Traube-Schüler schloß er die Freundschaft mit E. A. Lowe, E. K. Rand, C.H. Beeson und anderen, deren verbindende Kraft sich auch auf seine und seiner Freunde Schüler forterbte.
Traube war es schließlich, der kurz vor seinem Tode 1907 den eben Promovierten mit der Materialsammlung für die Herausgabe der "Mittelalterlichen Bibliothekskataloge Deutschlands und der Schweiz" beauftragte und ihn auf die erste jener vielen und ausgedehnten Bibliotheksreisen schickte, die für Lehmann immer wieder eine Quelle seiner Forschung geworden sind. Ungezählte Bibliotheken kannte er aus eigener Anschauung von seinen vom Finderglück begünstigten Studien her. So manche Sammlung hat er aus einem Dornröschenschlaf erweckt, so, um nur einiges zu nennen, die Riddagshäuser Handschriften im Predigerseminar in Wolfenbüttel, über die er mit 21 Jahren seinen ersten Aufsatz veröffentlichte (1905), oder jene des Bayerischen Nationalmuseums, von denen er 1916 die wichtigsten beschrieb. Wie die lebenden Bilbiotheken und ihre Fonds waren ihm die Geschichte und die Auflösung des alten Bücherbesitzes vertraut. Ein großer Bibliothekar hat diese innere Beziehung, die auf einem besonderen Spürsinn und auf immenser Arbeit beruhte, damit gekennzeichnet, daß er Lehmann ehrend als einen "Bibliotheksverwandten" ansprach, was dieser gern hinnahm.
Seine Tätigkeit für die "Bibliothekskataloge" war höchste erfolgreich und brachte zahlreiche unbekannte Verzeichnisse ans Licht. Sie fand ihre Krönung in der Veröffentlichung der ersten beiden Bände des entstehenden Corpus. Der erste, 1918 erschienene umfasst die Diözesen Konstanz und Chur; hier wurden die wertvollen alten Kataloge von St. Gallen und der Reichenau zum ersten Mal zuverlässig und vollständig herausgegeben. Im Jahre 1928 gab Lehmann die Erfurter Inventare heraus, von denen er den Riesenkatalog der Kartause selbst aufgefunden hatte. Es hat ihm eine besondere Freude bereitet, daß er im letzten Jahr seines Lebens dank einer abenteuerlichen Entdeckung im Kloster Engelberg eine Verbesserung und Ergänzung von Band I publizieren konnte.
Schon 1911 hatte er sich für lateinische Philologie des Mittelalters in München habilitiert. Auch für ihn war Traubes Konzeption, die dieser vor allem in der von Lehmann 1911 veröffentlichen "Einleitung" niedergelegt hatte, das Leitbild, aber er hat sich rastlos bemüht, dem Fach nun wirklich das ganze Mittelalter zu erschließen. Wie intensiv er es tat, offenbarte schlagartig die Abhandlung "Literaturgeschichte im Mittelalter" (1912); es ist ein weiter Weg von der Schule Traubes bis zu der überlegenen Kenntnis der Ordensliteratur des Spätmittelalters, die hier ausgebreitet ist und die ihn in der Folgezeit in enge Fühlung mit Franz Ehrle, Clemens Baeumker und Martin Grabmann brachte.
Lehmann hat die Wissenschaft von der mittellateinischen Literatur um viele Gestalten und Werke aus allen Jahrhunderten bereichert. Er hat literarische und geistige Tendenzen wie die Parodie (1922) und die pseudoantike Literatur (1927) aus der Fülle auch des ungedruckten Materials dargestellt und charakteristische Motive wie das literarische Bild Karls des Großen (1934) und die Sagen vom Herzog Ernst (1927) und von Judas Ischarioth (1930) verfolgt. Wesentliche Beiträge hat er zum III. Bande der Literaturgeschichte von Max Manitius (1931) geleistet; das mittellateinische Schrifttum der nordischen Länder hat durch ihn die erste zusammenfassende Behandlung erfahren (1936/7). Ihn interessierte die Ausbildung des Begriffs "Mittelalter" (194, 1928) ebenso wie der Gebrauch der abwertenden Bezeichnung "Küchenlatein" (1928). Mit gleicher Liebe wie das Geistesleben und die Literatur des Mittelalters pflegte er in seinen Arbeiten und in seinem Unterricht die Überlieferungsgeschichte der römischen Literatur, die Handschriftenkunde und die Paläographie.
In fast alle diese Forschungen sind eigene Entdeckungen Lehmanns in großer Zahl eingegangen. Aber deren Menge war zu groß, ihr Inhalt zu bunt und vielschichtig, als daß er selbst alles auszuschöpfen vermocht hätte. So entschloß er sich, eine zwanglose Reihe von "Mitteilungen aus Handschriften" (seit 1929) zu eröffnen. Zu diesen Fundgruben gesellen sich die ebenso abwechslungsreichen "Skandinavischen Reisefrüchte" (1935 bis 1939). Mit seinem alten Freunde Otto Glauning veröffentlichte er 1940 die "Mittelalterlichen Handschriftenbruchstücke der Universtitätsbibliothek und des Georgianum zu München", deren Bestand er durch viele neue Funde vermehrt hatte; dieses Buch hat dadurch, daß die Sammlung im weiteren Verlauf des Krieges vernichtet wurde, einen umso höheren Wert erhalten. Auch die Abhandlung "Fragmente" (1944) erschloß erlesenes bayerisches Material zur Liturgiegeschichte und zur patristischen und klassischen Überlieferung. In der Einleitung dazu ergriff Lehmann die Gelegenheit zu einem autobiographischen Rückblick auf fast vier Jahrzehnte erfolgreiche Handschriftenforschung. Er ahnte nicht, welcher verhängnisvolle Einschnitt in seiner Lebensarbeit bevorstand.
Am 12 Juli 1944, dem Tage vor seinem 60. Geburtstag, wurde all das, was er in langen Jahren gesammelt und vorbereitet hatte, wurden Hoffnungen und literarische Pläne bei einem Bombenangriff zerstört. Nur einzelne Arbeiten Lehmanns aus der Zeit nach dem Kriege nahmen frühere Vorhaben wieder auf, so wenn er über die mittelalterlichen Büchertitel (1948, 1952), über Hrabanus Maurus (1954) oder Johannes Trithemius (1961) schrieb. Sein letztes großes Werk wurde die "Geschichte der Fuggerbibliotheken" (2 Bände, 1956 und 1960). Leider kam der Gedanke, aus der gereiften Anschauung eine Geschichte der mittellateinischen Literatur bis zum Ende des Mittelalters zu schreiben, nicht zur Ausführung; nur von einzelnen Perioden hat er weitgespannte Charakteristiken ausgeführt. Ein wertvolles Vermächtnis hinterließ er der Mediävistik mit einer Sammlung seiner wichtigeren Aufsätze in den fünf Bänden der "Erforschung des Mittelalters" (1959 bis 1962), die 1941 mit einer einbändigen Auswahl begonnen hatte; sein in Band I enthaltenes Schriftenverzeichnis zählt mit der Ergänzung im V. Bande 303 Nummern. Auch die "Parodie im Mittelalter" konnte er noch in erweiterter Form herausbringen (1963).
In die Annalen der Akademie, für die er seit 1907 arbeitete, die ihn 1971 zum außerordentlichen, 1932 zum ordentlichen Mitglied ernannte, hat er seinen Namen als Forscher tief eingegraben: von 1908 bis 1964 sind in ihren Serien 36 Arbeiten von ihm erschienen, darunter vier in den Abhandlungen, ohne die Bände der "Bibliothekskataloge" und seine Beiträge zum Akademie-Jubiläum.
Darüber darf jedoch sein sonstiges Wirken für die Akademie nicht vergessen werden. Von 1941 bis 1942 war er Sekretär der philosophisch-historischen Klasse. Nach dem Kriege hat er sich als Leiter der Kommission für den Thesaurus Linguae Latinae und als Mitglied der Internationalen Thesaurus-Kommission große Verdienst um die erneute Konsolidierung des Unternehmens erworben, daneben seit 1954 das "Mittellateinische Wörterbuch" betreut. Als die Musikhistorische Kommission nach dem Tode von Rudolf v. Ficker verwaist war, sprang er ein und hat auch hier erfolgreiche Arbeit geleistet. Schließlich hat er jahrelang als Vertreter der westdeutschen Akademien bei der Union Académique Internationale gewirkt.
Das Ziel, das er sich einst gesetzt hatte, hat er erreicht, und viele akademische Ehren sind ihm für sein wissenschaftliches Lebenswerk zuteil geworden. Sein Bild wird fortleben als das einens großen Gelehrten, als eines Vielerfahrenen, der stets guten Rat zu geben wußte, und bei allen, die ihm nahestehen durften, als das eines gütigen Menschen.

Bernhard Bischoff
Jahrbuch der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1964) 179-183

Claudio Leonardi (1926 - 2010)

Das lange Forscherleben Leonardis prägte das Studium in Mailand beim Mittellateiner Ezio Franceschini und in Freiburg (Schweiz) beim Romanisten Gianfranco Contini: den Vorrang der Philologie als methodischen Ansatz der Geisteswissenschaften, die zentrale Stellung der lateinischen Kultur in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit, die Komplementarität unterschiedlicher Diszplinen und den Dialog mit der europäischen und namentlich mit der deutschen Forschung verkörperte er in Forschung und Lehre an seinen akademischen Wirkungsstätten Siena, Perugia, Lecce und schließlich Florenz, wo er nicht nur den Lehrstuhl für Lateinische Philologie des Mittelalters innehatte, sondern auch die in einer Kartause bei Florenz beheimatete Società per lo studio del medioevo latino (SISMEL) gründete und leitete. Sie wurde zur Kaderschmiede für die philologisch orientierte Mediävistik in Italien und, dank den Stipendiaten (darunter viele aus Deutschland), auch im Ausland. Der vielfach ausgezeichnete, im Auftritt immer bescheidene Leonardi war kein verstaubter Gelehrter, welcher der Sehnsucht nach einer philologischen Prädominanz wie im 19. Jahrhundert frönte. Schon in den 70er Jahren interessierte er sich für EDV-Applikationen in der Mediävistik und setze sich energisch dafür ein. Erst vor kurzem waren mehrere bio-bibliographische Datenbanken, welche die SISMEL herausgibt (darunter die führende mediävistische Bibliographie Medioevo latino), zu einer digitalen Online-Ressource gebündelt worden. Seine Forschungsarbeit umspannte das ganze Mittelalter, mit einer Vorliebe für die theologische Reflexion von Gregor dem Großen bis zu den Franziskanern des 13. Jahrhunderts. Obwohl er die Leitung der SISMEL vor einigen Jahren abgegeben hatte, kümmerte er sich um die jungen Forscher mit ungebrochener Energie. Noch am Vormittag des 21. April erkundigte er sich in der Kartause nach dem Stand der Projekte. Wenige Stunden später starb Claudio Leonardi im Alter von 84 Jahren.

Michele C. Ferrari

Claudio Leonardi, the world´s foremost champion of Medieval Latin literature, died at home in Florence on 21 may 2010 from heart failure and cerebral haemorrhage. Through his huge energies and abilities as scholar, teacher and administrator he was able to transform the field of Medieval Latin studies, to devise and create the works of reference and bibliographical orientation which are now fundamental to this field and to provide it with an efficient organ for publication (including, most recently, electronic publication in the form of the extensive web-based database MIRABILE), and with a well-furnished research library and meeting-place, a venue designed to promote research, consultation, and intellectual exchange in all the many areas of study encompassed by the Latin Middle Ages. Claudio Leonardi was born on 17 April 1926 at the village of Sacco di Rovereto (near Trento in the region of the Dolomites), where he maintained a residence throughout his life (excepting only his final years, he was extremely fit and active, and always thought of himself as a mountain man). During the early 1940s he attended the Liceo-Ginnasio "Antonio Rosmini" in Rovereto; and at the end of the war he went to the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan, where from 1945 to 1949 he took is laurea in the field of the Medieval Latin under the direction of Ezio Franceschini (1906 - 1983), the holder of the first chair in Medieval Latin in Italy (established in Milan in 1939). (Like Claudio, Franceschini was from the Trentino and was an active mountaineer; also like Claudio, he was an alumnus of the Liceo Rosimini which he attended during the 1920s). During the years of his laurea, Claudio spent two semesters studying in Fribourg (1947 - 48) with the great Romance philologist Gianfranco Contini (1912 - 1990), who remained a friend throughout his life, and whose huge library Claudio acquired for the Fondazione Franceschini after his death in 1990. After holding various temporary posts during the 1950s (including that of Secretary to the Repertorium Fontium Historiae Medii Aevi at the Istituto storico italiano per il Medoevo in Rome), Claudio was appointed scriptor in the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana in 1960, where he was able to develop his expertise in medieval manuscripts (a later reflex of his time in the Vatican is his volume in the series of the catalogues of the Codices Vaticani Latini (nos. 2060 - 2117), published by the Vatican in 1987). After a lengthy period of apprenticeship, so to speak, in the Vatican (1960 - 69), he was appointed in 1968 to a teaching post at the University of Lecce, from where in 1971 he was appointed Professor Ordinarius in the History of Medieval Latin Literature at the University of Perugia, a post which he held for three years, before moving to the University of Siena at Arezzo for three years (1974 - 76), whence in 1976 he was able to transfer the post to the University of Florence, where he founded the "Dipartimento di Studi sul Medioevo e Rinascimento." From then on Florence remained his home, with his activities based first in the Department and latterly, from 1987 onwards, at the Certosa del Galluzzo just outside of Florence, where he presided over the newly-founded and ever-expanding Società internazionale per lo Studio del Medieoevo Lation (S.I.S.M.E.L.), on which more below. Claudio´s earliest publications were manuscript-based, a natural outcome of his years of employment as scriptor at the Vatican: editions based on Vatican manuscripts, such as his editions of the Latin decrees of medieval ecumenical councils, especially those of the Eight Ecumencial Council (published in Giuseppe Albergio´s Conciliorum oecumenicorum decreta [Basel, 1962], esp. pp.133-62), or his monograph-length study of the glosses of Anastasius Bibliothecarius to the decrees of this same Council (869-70), as preserved in Vat. Lat. 4965 (Studi medievali 8 [1967], 59 - 192, issued separately as a monograph from Spoleto in 1987). But the work which brought his name to the attention of the wider scholarly world was his extensive catalogue of manuscripts of Martianus Capella, originally published as two long articles in Aevum (1959 and 1960), and then combined as a separate publication, I codici di Marziano Capella (Milan, 1961). Throughout his life he retained an active interest in the work of medieval commentators such as Remigius of Auxerre, and a substantial part of his publication is concerned with the medieval tradition of Martianus glossing and of commentary on classical authors more generally (e.g. "I commenti altomedievali ai classici pagani" in the Settimane of Spoleto, 22 (1975), 459 - 504). It was perhaps inevitable that, once he had accepted a university post, the demands of teaching would encourage a broadening of perspective. In Claudio´s Case, his interest henceforth encompassed the entire Latin Middle Ages, from patristic authors such as Cassian and Salvian, and Benedict and Cassiodorus, to Renaissance authors such as Savonarola and Thomas More. (A clear sense of the vast scope of his interest can be gleaned from the huge - 900 pp. - volume of his collected papers, Medioevo Latino: La cultura dell´Europa christiana [Florence, S.I.S.M.E.L., 2004].) It is impossible to summarize the content of such vast scholarly production, but a number of predilections stand out, above all his concern with the Christian spirituality of medieval authors, from Bede and Ambrosius Autpertus through Anselm and St. Bernhard, to St. Francis and Joachim of Fiore. He was particularly interested in medieval mysticism, especially women mystics such as Catherine of Siena and Angela of Foligno. These concerns are reflected not only in articles and conference papers such as those reprinted in the above-mentioned volume, but in publications such as Scrittrici mistiche italiane (Marietti, 1988) [with Giovanni Pozzi], or the three-volume anthology of Medieval Latin spiritual writings entitled Il Christo (published by Mondadori in Milan, 1889-92), or the three volumes of La letteratura francescana (likewise published by Mondadori: the first two volumes appeared in 2004-5; he was completing the third volume, on St. Bonaventure, at the time of his death). Soon after he was appointed to the university teaching post at Lecce (1968), Claudio became a consigliere aggregato of the Centro italiano di studi sull´alto medioevo (C.I.S.A.M.) in Spoleto, and then from 1970 until his death a Consigliere of that organization, which is universally known as the publisher of the prestigious (and voluminous) journal Studi medievali, and as host of the annual Settimane di studio in Spoleto, which were established in 1952 and for more than fifty years have resulted in the annual publication of the Settimane di studio della Fondazione C.I.S.A.M. (see Omaggio al medievo: I primi cinquanta anni del Centro italiano di studi sull´alto medioevo di Spoleto, ed. E. Menestò [C.I.S.A.M., 2004], which is lavishly illustrated with photographs of the consiglieri of C.I.S.A.M. and of many of those scholars who have given papers at the Spoleto Settimane, including many of Claudio Leonardi himself). As a result of his work with C.I.S.A.M. and his friendship with Gustavo Vinay (1913 - 1993), who was the holder of the second chair of Medieval Latin to be established in Italy (at Rome, in 1955), and who in 1960 had resuscitated Studi medievali in its third manifestation (terza serie), Claudio became in 1970 the general editor of Studi medievali, a post which he held from then until 2002. This editorial activity put him in touch with medievalists all over the world, and also equipped him to deal effectively with large scholarly projects involving authors in many countries and speaking and writing many languages. Once again it would be impossible here to give a complete list of all the multi-author publications which Claudio organized and saw through press, but one might mention two in particular: Lo spazio letterario del Medioevo, I. Il Medioevo latino (5 vols. in 6; Rome, 1992-98) [with E. Menestò and C. Cavallo], and La letteratura latina medievale (secoli VI-XV) (Florende, 2002), probably the best single-volume history of the Medieval Latin literature now available. This to say nothing of the many publications which were produced under his aegis by the Società internazinale per lo studio del Medioevo latino or S.I.S.M.E.L, to which we may now turn. His experience of editing Studi medievali made Claudio acutely aware of the vastness of the field of Medieval Latin literature, and of the lack of bibliographical guidance for scholars working in it. He was equally aware that this lack was partly a reflex of the newness of the discipline - the first two chairs in the field in Italy, held by his mentor Franceschini and his friend Vinay, were only established in 1939 and 1955 respectively, and even in Germany, where Ludwig Traube had held the first chair in the subject (established in 1888 in Munich), the discipline was less than a century old - in comparison, say, with long-established disciplines such as Classical Latin literature. He determined to do something about this. Accordingly, after first securing the financial support of the (Italian) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche or C.N.R. (through the kind offices of Professor Francesco della Corte), he invited to Florence in 1978 a small group of Italian Medieval Latinists who shared his vision and who would be willing to cooperate in the enterprise: Rino Avesani in Rome, Ferruccio Bertini in Genoa, Giuseppe Cremascoli in Perugia, and Giovanni Orlandi in Milan (the essential point being that each of these scholars held permanent teaching positions in the subject, and would therefore be able to draw on the assistance of the research students under their supervision). With the addition of Claudio himself in Florence, these scholars headed up the five centres of redaction of the annual bibliographical journal which was to emerge from their efforts. They chose as their model L´année philologique, the French annual bibliography of classical studies founded in 1928 by the great Latinist Jules Marouzeau (1878 - 1964); their plan was to vet the previous year´s publication of all those periodicals which might contain an article on any aspect of Medieval Latin literature and related disciplines (but excluding such subjects as diplomatic, numismatics, art history, architecture, etc.). Some sixty-five journals were selected and assigned variously to the five centres of redaction. The details of each relevant article were typed on to filing cards and accompanied by a careful resumé of the article (any manuscripts mentioned in the course of the article were carefully recorded). When the work of ecording was complete, the filing cards were brought by the five heads of redaction to Claudio´s apartment in Florence, where they were laid out on the floor of the dining room and then arranged in a carefully devised sequence: authors first, in alphabetical order, followed by the various disciplines (hagiography, historiography, liturgy, etc.). When the process of arranging the cards was complete, they were numbered in sequence - no small task, given that tens of thousands of cards were in question - and then conveyed to the printers at C.I.S.A.M. in Spoleto. The first volume of this annual bibliography, based on work published in 1978 and now named Medioevo Latino, containing some 4,600 entries printed in nearly six hundred pages (with indices of manuscripts, place-names and scholars), came out in 1980, dedicated to Franceschini and Vinay. Now in its thirty-second year, Medioevo Latino has appeared regularly each year since 1980; and, although it is now compiled electronically rather than from typed filing cards, its size has grown commensurate with the growth of the field: vol. XXXI contains more than 14,000 entries printed in 1,300 two-column pages in large folio format (it is also available in electronic form as part of MIRABILE: see below). Medioevo Latino established itself immediately and universally as the standard and indispensable guide to current scholarship in the field of Medieval Latin studies. Any scholar other than Claudio Leonardi might have been happy with this achievement and might have contented himself with editing Medioevo Latino and Studi medievali under the aegis of C.I.S.A.M. But Claudio was a brilliant and creative visionary. He saw that the work of collaboration which had led to the production of Medioevo Latino, with its individual centres of redaction, could be expanded so as to include international redactors, and could thus be used as the basis for an international society of Medieval Latin studies. With this vision in mind, he approached a number of governmental agencies, local, regional and national, and a number of banks, local and regional, with a view to securing funding; through his contacts with Fr. Malachia Falletti, then prior of the few Cistercian monks who inhabited the large and beautiful Certosa del Galluzzo, a Charterhouse located to the south of Florence which had been built in the fourteenth century and extended in the sixteenth, he acquired permission to house his new society in the Certosa. And in this way was born the Società internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo Latino or S.I.S.M.E.L.: an organization which had existed informally since 1978, but which first acquired legal status in January 1984, with Claudio becoming its first President. It currently consists of some 220 Ordinary Fellows (Soci ordinari) and some seventeen Honorary Fellows (Soci onorari), as can be seen on the Society´s website: . At approximately this time occurred another event which was to have important bearing on the future of S.I.S.M.E.L. Ezio Franceschini died on 21 March 1983. Franceschini had never married; and it was his wish, and that of his sister Anna Maria, that his substantial estate should be put to the service of Medieval Latin studies. With Claudio´s guidance was created the Fondazione Ezio Franceschini (F.E.F.), an organization which was directed by Claudio himself and by and administrative committee which included as its honorary president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, sometime president of the Republic of Italy, who was an old friend of Franceschini. The Fondazione Franceschini is a legal entity (established in 1987) distinct from S.I.S.M.E.L.; it works in collaboration with S.I.S.M.E.L., but independently promotes research relevant to the medieval vernacular languages and literatures (among its resources are various databases and huge library which belonged to Gianfranco Contini, who died in 1990). Taken together the two organizations constitute an unparalleled centre for the study of medieval literary culture. With its funding secure and its permanent location fixed, Claudio could begin to create in S.I.S.M.E.L. an effective organ for the pursuit of scholarly work on all aspects of the Latin Middle Ages. The five original heads of redaction of Medioevo Latino, with the addition of Giuseppe Scalia in Rome, became the "Founding Fellows" (Soci fondatori) of S.I.S.M.E.L. A small number of Honorary Fellows was invited to lend prestige to the nascent Society, and, in order to oversee its activities and to make of it a genuinely "international" organization, a small number of Medieval Latinists were invited to form a "Comitato scientifico" (scholarly advisory committee); the "Comitato scientifico" currently consists of some twenty-three members from many countries including France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, and Switzerland, as well as Italy itself. The "Comitato scientifico" in turn oversees the work of various sezioni di ricerca ("research sections") engaged in various scholarly activities (exegesis, hagiography, philosophy, history of science, philology, lexicography, palaeography, etc.). But in spite of this and other committees, the overall direction and development of S.I.S.M.E.L. was in effect the work of one man: Claudio himself. As the creator and administrator of an organization such as S.I.S.M.E.L. Claudio Leonardi can only be described as a genius. He had from the beginning a clear vision of how he wished the organization to develop, and he was able to muster extraordinary energies in implementing this vision. He built up at the Certosa a very substantial research library of works pertaining to Medieval Latin literature, incorporating the private libraries not only of Ezio Franceschini, but also of medievalists who had been friends of Claudio, such as José Ruysschaert (quondam Prefect of the Vatican Library) and Lorenzo Minio-Paluello. The library continues to grow rapidly through the acquisition of books sent for review to Medioevo Latino and books and periodicals acquired through exchange with other scholarly institutions. With a research library in place and the expertise of the fellowship of S.I.S.M.E.L. to draw on, Claudio established at the Certosa a Corso di perfezionamento post-universitario (based both on S.I.S.M.E.L. and on F.E.F.) which has entitlement to award doctorates in research in Medieval Latin literature (from the beginning the Corso and its teaching programme was organized by Claudio´s former student, Francesco Santi, who has recently become Director of S.I.S.M.E.L. and all its operations). Sometimes Claudio´s vision ran counter to the opinion of the "Comitato scientifico", but in the end he always prevailed (and always, it must be said, to the advancement and betterment of S.I.S.M.E.L.). An example might be the difficult decision to extend the chronological scope of Medioevo Latino (and with it, by implication, the chronological scope of the Society.) The first volumes of Medioevo Latino had covered the period 500 to 1300. Claudio determined to extend the upper limit to 1500, so as to incorporate not only the late medieval authors but also humanist writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. But a chronological extension of this sort would bring Medioevo Latino into direct competition with the Bibliographie annuelle du moyen âge tardif. Auteurs et textes latins vers 1250-1500, which had been published since 1991 by the Institut de recherche et d´histoire de textes (I.R.H.T.) in Paris, and had been created to fill the lacuna left by the original scope of Medioevo Latino. The proposed extension was discussed during a contentious meeting of the "Comitato scientifico" in 1994. I say "contentious," because not all members of the Committee agreed with Claudio´s decision, and certainly not Louis Holtz, who was at that time the Director of I.R.H.T. and also a member of the "Comitato scientifico". But Claudio refused to relinquish his opinion, and after much discussion, some of it sharply worded, Louis Holtz with characteristic magnanimity withdrew his objections and Claudio´s view prevailed; and from 1995 onwards, beginning with the vol. XV, Medioevo Latino has described itself as a Bollettino bibliografico della cultura europea da Boezio a Erasmo (secoli VI-XV). (I must add that, following the difficult meeting, Claudio warmly embraced Louis Holtz: their scholarly vision, after all, was fundamentally the same, and they remained close friends ever after, in spite of the decision; I also recall that the dinner following the meeting was one of the most jovial ever.) The decision had wide-reaching consequences for other aspects of the Society´s work, not least for C.A.L.M.A. (Compendium Auctorum Latinorum Medii Aevi), which Claudio and I had launched in the mid-1990s, and which, following the decision to extend the chronological scope of the Medioevo Latino was obliged to incorporate treatment of humanist authors, who vastly outnumber medieval authors (perhaps by a ratio of ten to one), and whose incorporation inevitably retarded production of C.A.L.M.A. The decision also spelled the end of the organization A.M.U.L. (Associazione per il Medioevo e l´Umanesimo latini), whose President was Claudio himself, since its activities were entirely superseded by those of S.I.S.M.E.L. As a leader Claudio did not shrink from taking bold and difficult decisions. Perhaps the most momentous decision concerned the publication of the ever-increasing scholarly production of S.I.S.M.E.L. and F.E.F. In the beginning, Medioevo Latino had been published in Spoleto by C.I.S.A.M., and Brepols had subsequently published the Autographa Medii Aevi, produced under the aegis of F.E.F., in its series of Corpus Christianorum (5 volumes published from 1994 onwards). But Claudio was deeply dissatisfied by the amount of royalties paid by these publishers. The alternative was for S.I.S.M.E.L. to establish its own printing house, a suggestion which was first made by Agostino Paravicini Bagliani (who was subsequently to become Claudio´s successor as President of S.I.S.M.E.L.). But this was an undertaking involving considerable risk and considerable initial investment (such as the acquisition of a warehouse). The matter was discussed at length in a meeting of the "Comitato scientifico" in 1997 (a difficult meeting in various ways, not least because the President of C.I.S.A.M., Enrico Menestò, a former student of Claudio and one of his most loyal supporters, was present as a member of the "Comitato scientifico" and instinctively wished to retain the printing rights to S.I.S.M.E.L.´s ever-increasing scholarly publication). Once again Claudio's opinion - that S.I.S.M.E.L. should indeed take the step of publishing ist own scholarly output - prevailed. And thus was born, in 1998, the publisher Edizioni del Galluzzo. The first volume of Medioevo Latino to be published by the Edizioni del Galluzzo was vol. XIX, which appeared in 1998, and the first two volumes of a newly-created series entitled Millennio Medievale appeared late 1997. Since that time the publishing house has grown from strength to strength, now producing on average some fifty titles a year, including the various scholary periodicals produced under the aegis of S.I.S.M.E.L. and its "sezioni di ricerca," such as Hagiographica (Sezione agiografica), Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale (Sezione filosofica), Micrologus and Micrologus' Library (Sezione storia, scienze e società), I manoscritti datati d'Italia (Sezione palaeografica), Filologia mediolatina and Te.Tra (Sezione filologica), and many more, not counting the Society's flagship publications Medioevo Latino and C.A.L.M.A. And in recent years, S.I.S.M.E.L. has moved into electronic publication in the form of its web-based database MIRABILE, which encompasses Medioevo Latino, C.A.L.M.A. and all periodicals listed above. Whether Claudio realized that S.I.S.M.E.L. would so quickly become the world's foremost publisher for medieval scholarship is difficult to say; but the success of Edizioni del Galluzzo, which now help to finance S.I.S.M.E.L.'s many operations, shows that his bold decision was fully justified. Caudio Leonardi was a man of immense personal warmth, sympathetic and gernerous to a fault. Although he was possessed of fierce determination, this aspect to his personality was always masked by his unassuming modesty and charm. He had a wonderful sense of humour, and a deeply-ingrained sense of pietas towards his mentors and predecessors. He was unquestionably a charismatic leader: it was simply impossible to refuse a personal request from Claudio, and his warmth and sympathy created huge loyalty among his students and colleagues, particularly those who worked tirelessly (and often with very little remuneration) for the various enterprises of S.I.S.M.E.L. He was unfailingly loyal to these followers and they almost invariably reciprocated this loyality. I never saw a trace of vanity in anything he said or did: his sole intrest was in the promotion of Medieval Latin studies, not in personal aggrandizement. He was a deeply religious man, and a loving husband and father: he and his wife, Anna Maria Chiavacci (Professor of Italian at the University of Siena at Arezzo, and a distinguished Dante scholar known internationally for her multi-volume commentary on the Divina Commedia), had five children, including four daughters, and one son, Lino, who is Professor of Romance Philology at Siena and a member of Consiglio di amministrazione of both S.I.S.M.E.L. and F.E.F. Claudio himself achieved international recognition for his work in Medieval Latin studies: he was a National Fellow of Accademia del Lincei (1985), and a Corresponding Fellow of both the British Academy (1988) and the Mediaeval Academy of America (2002). Exhausted, perhaps, by a life of such creative activity, Claudio now lies at rest in a columbare in a quiet corner of the cemetery at San Miniato, shaped by a stand of cypress trees. The columbare is marked with the simple inscription "Claudio Leonardi Sacco di Roverto 17.4.1926 - Firenze 21.5.2010." But his true memorial is S.I.S.M.E.L. and all its works, an organization which will bear the indelible stamp of his personality as long as it should exist.

Michael Lapidge, Vice-President, S.I.S.M.E.L.
The Journal of Medieval Latin 20 (2010), xviii-xxvii

Giovanni Orlandi (1938 - 2007)

Am 11. September 2008 wäre Giovanni Orlandi siebzig Jahre alt geworden. Eine schwere Krankheit hat in diesen Tag nicht mehr erleben lassen. Um den am 13. November 2007 für viele unerwartet verstorbenen Gelehrten trauert ein großer Freundes-, Kollegen- und Schülerkreis.
Giovanni (oder, wie er sich von ihm Nahestehenden gern anreden ließ: Nanni) Orlandi war eine anima candida. Man konnte ihm nicht anders als mit der Sympathie begegnen, die er stets seinen Gesprächspartnern gegenüber bewies. Er gehörte zu den Menschen, die keine persönlichen Gegner und Feinde haben. Er war immer hilfsbereit, nahm an dem Ergehen seiner Freunde Anteil und hielt durch regelmäßige Telefonate den Kontakt zu ihnen aufrecht. Er war über ihre aktuellen Forschungsprojekte auf dem laufenden und unterstützte sie durch einschlägige bibliographische Hinweise. Hörte er von einem Krankheitsfall im Freundeskreis, war er der erste, der besorgt bei dem Kranken anrief, ihn aufmunterte, und er unterließ es nicht, sich in der Folgezeit nach seinem Befinden zu erkundigen.
Orlandi, einer der scharfsinnigsten und vielseitigsten Fachvertreter, hat wie viele Mittelalteiner zunächst andere Fächer studiert. In seinem Fall waren es die modernen Philologien, Klassische Philologie und mittelalterliche Geschichte, deren Studium er 1962 in Mailand mit der laurea abschloß. Von diesem Zeitpunkt an wandte er sich der mittel- und neulateinischen Philologie zu. 1964 hielt er sich zu Sprachstudien in München auf, im darauffolgenden Jahr studierte er für kurze Zeit bei Bernhard Bischoff. Er wurde bald Assistent und Lehrbeauftragter für Mittellatein an der Universität Mailand, ging als Extraordinarius für zwei Jahre an die Universität von Kalabrien und kehrte 1977 als Ordinarius für Mittellateinische Philologie nach Mailand zurück. Bis zu seiner Emeritierung im Jahre 2005 vertrat er hier das Fach mit großem Erfolg und betreute eine beeindruckend große Zahl ausgezeichneter mittelateinische Dissertationen. Die von ihm ausgebildeten jüngeren Wissenschaftler werden für lange Zeit das geistige Profil der italienischen Mittellatinistik bestimmen. Als Nachfolger auf den Mailänder Lehrstuhl wurde sein Schüler Paolo Chiesa berufen.
Von 1977 an wirkte Nanni Orlandi an allen großen Gemeinschaftsaufgaben des Faches in Italien mit. So gehörte er mit Rino Avesani, Ferruccio Bertini und Giuseppe Cremascoli zu den Mitbegründern der von Claudio Leonardi geleiteten unentbehrlichen Fachbibliographie Medioevo Latino, die seit 1980 alljährlich über die Neuerscheinungen des Vorjahres und ihre Rezensionen berichtet. Mit seinem eisernen Fleiß und seiner asketisch zu nennenden Pflichterfüllung bestimmte er das Arbeitsklima. Bei aller Effizienz gab es aber auch eine andere Seite seines Wesens: Bei den Redaktionssitzungen, die zunächst in Leonardis Wohnung stattfanden, testete Orlandi die Aufmerksamkeit seiner Kollegen durch fiktive Titel von Büchern und Zeitschriftenaufsätzen, in denen sich seine gute Laune und sein an englischen Vorbildern geschulter Witz manifestierten. Er verfaßte auch Limericks und trug sich mit gelungenen Versen und Skizzen in die ihm vorlegten Gästebücher ein; zu manchen Anlässen verfaßte er lateinische Poeme – natürlich in gereimten Vagantenzeilen.
Zu England entwickelte er eine große Zuneigung. Seit dem Anfang der 80er Jahre war er Fellow von Clare Hall in Cambridge. Nanni Orlandi und seine Frau Isabella Gualandri, Professorin für Klassisches Latein an der Universität Mailand, gewannen Cambridge so lieb, daß sie sich dort ein Haus erwarben und regelmäßig ihren Urlaub und die Freisemester dort verbrachten. Beide pflegten den Kontakt zu englischen Freunden wie Michael Lapidge, Jill Mann, Peter Dronke und John Marenbon, mit dem Orlandi die ‚Collationes' des Petrus Abälard in der Serie der Oxford Mediaeval Texts herausgab.
Nanni Orlandi hinterläßt ein großes Oeuvre. Es umfaßt Texteditionen und übersetzungen, so den umfangreichen Architekturtraktat von Leon Battista Alberti, die ‚Historia sui temporis' des Radulfus Glaber, zwei der elegischen Komödien des 12. Jahrhunderts, ‚Baucis et Traso' und die gemeinsam mit seiner Frau edierte ‚Lidia' des Arnulf von Orléans. Er gab mehrere Heiligenviten heraus und interessierte sich schon in seinen frühen Arbeiten für Reiseliteratur der Spätantike und des Frühmittelalters, so für die pseudoklementinischen ‚Recognitiones' und vor allem für den hagiographischen Reiseroman par excellence, die ‚Navigatio Sancti Brendani', über die er schon 1968 eine wegweisende, vielversprechende Monographie vorlegte. Seine große kritische Edition der ‚Navigatio' auf der Basis aller Handschriften stand jetzt unmittelbar vor ihrem Abschluß. Seine Schülerin Rossana Guiglielmetti hat die Herausgabe dieses Opus magnum aus seinem Nachlaß für die nahe Zukunft in Aussicht gestellt. Im Umfeld der ‚Navigatio', die von Walter von Châtillon in Vagantenstrophen umgesetzt wurde, entstand sein 1994 publizierter Aufsatz ‚San Brendano, Gualtero di Châtillon e Bernhard Bischoff', eine Eloge auf Bischoff, dessen sprichwörtliche Bescheidenheit und Hilfsbereitschaft er würdigte.
Das zentrale Anliegen Orlandis war die Sorge um den wahren Text. So kreisen viele seiner Arbeiten um editorische Probleme, um Fragen der überlieferung, der recensio und emendatio und um die Erstellung eines kritischen Apparates. Er reflektierte über die sog. Lachmannsche Methode und erörterte an konkreten Fällen das im Mittelalter so oft begegnende Problem der Vielzahl von Redaktionen und Fassungen eines Textes. über Fragen der mittellateinischen Metrik und zu den Klauseln in der Prosa hat er mehrfach mit beeindruckenden Resultaten publiziert.
Einen repräsentativen überblick über seine weitgespannten Interessen bietet der gerade erschienen Sammelband mit dem Titel ‚Scritti di filologia mediolatina'. Die noch von ihm selbst ausgewählten Aufsätze, die in Zeitschriften, Festschriften, Akademieabhandlungen und Kongreßakten erschienen sind, werden von seinen Schülern und Mitarbeitern im Verlag der SISMEL herausgegeben. Sie lassen seine Meisterschaft bei der Diskussion von aktuellen Fragen des Faches erkennen. Dankenswerter Weise sind auch zwölf ausführliche Rezensionen in den Sammelband aufgenommen. Orlandi hat oft das undankbare Geschäft der Besprechung mit großem Elan gepflegt, bei Editionen viele dunkle Textstellen durch geniale Konjekturen verständlich gemacht und bei allem Scharfsinn ohne Schärfe auch die Verdienste der Rezensierten gewürdigt. Er hat sich als aufmerksamer Leser um die Emendation von Korruptelen bemüht, die vom Editor des Textes oft gar nicht bemerkt worden waren.
Nanni Orlandi hat an sich und an andere hohe Anforderungen gestellt. Er war ein herausragender Philologe und treuer Freund, an den viele mit Dankbarkeit und Bewunderung denken.

Paul Gerhard Schmidt
Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 44 (2009) 119-121


Giovanni Orlandi, one of the best known and best loved Medieval Latinists, died unexpectedly on 13 November 2007, after an unavailing struggle with pancreatic cancer. He had retired from his chair as Professor Ordinarius at the University of Milan only two years previously, and was actively engaged on a number of scholarly projects when his work was terminated by the painful last illness: but he kept working to the end, and was completing an article (published posthumously in Filologia mediolatina) on the day he died. Giovanni – or, as he was known to family and friends, Nanni – Orlandi was born in Milan and went to school there at the Liceo Parini, where he acquired his excellent command of Greek and Latin, and then at the University of Milan, where he completed his laurea in 1962 in the fields of classical philology, modern languages, and medieval history. But he soon began to develop a particular interest in medieval and humanist Latin philology, an interest fostered importantly by a year of study in Munich with Bernhard Bischoff (1964-65). From 1963 until 1969 he had various research grants from the Ministry of Education and the CNR (Centro nazionale per la ricerca); from 1964 until 1968 he was assistente volontario, an from 1969 to 1975 Professore incaricato, of Medieval Latin Literature at the University of Milan, becoming Libero docente in this subject in 1971. In 1975 he was appointed Professor Extraordinarius at the University of Calabria at Arcavacata (Cosenza); but after two years he returned in 1977 to Milan as Professor Ordinarius of Medieval and Humanist Latin, a post he held until his retirement in 2005. Giovanni Orlandi leaves a huge corpus of publication in Medieval Latin, which ranges from late antiquity (Cassiodorus) to the Renaissance (Petrarch and Leon Battista Alberti). His earliest major publication was an edition of Alberti's treatise De architectura (1966), and during his career he produced full-length editions of a number of Medieval Latin texts, including the elegiac Latin comedy Baucis et Traso (1980), the Historia sui temporis of Radulfus Glaber (with Guglielmo Cavallo, 1989), the Lidia of Arnulf of Orleans (with his wife, Isabella Gualandri, Professor of Classical Latin in Milan, 1998), and the Collationes of Abelard (with John Marenborn, 2001). He worked for many sears on an edition of the Hiberno-Latin voyage-tale, the Navigatio S. Brendani, identifying many of the 130 surviving manuscripts, and collating more than half of them. He published the first volume of a projected edition in 1968 (Navigatio S. Brendani, I. Introduzione), but his premature death prevented him from completing the edition itself. (A research post at the University of Florence, held by his pupil Rossana Guglielmetti, was recently created for the express purpose of bringing this edition to completion.) In addition to these major editions, Giovanni Orlandi published some 100 articles and over forty reviews. Many of these have been republished in his collected papers, Scritti di filologia mediolatina (Florence: SISMEL, 2008), a massive volume of 915 pp. edited by four of his former students: Paolo Chiesa, Anna Maria Fagnoni, Rossana Guglielmetti and Giovanni Paolo Maggioni. The intellectual range of these publications is stupendous, but it may be said that they are principally concerned with three subjects which lay at the heart of his scholarly orientation: the methodology and practice of textual criticism; Medieval Latin metrics; and Medieval Latin prose rhythm. Of these, articles on textual criticism occupy 300 pp. of the collected papers. He was acutely aware of the differences involved in editing Medieval, as opposed to Classical, Latin texts; and he brought a fresh perspective to the peculiar problems posed by Medieval Latin texts: how to deal with (and how to identify) autograph manuscripts; how to determine whether the idiosyncratic orthography preserved in manuscripts (particularly of Merovingian texts) is authorial or scribal; how to deal with the transmission and edition of texts preserved in dozens, if not hundreds, of manuscripts; and the extent to which the so-called "method of Lachmann" is really relevant to the edition of Medieval Latin texts. He devoted a good deal of energy to working out what might be called the "modified" method of Lachmann: a method of identifying and classifying the most important witnesses in a transmissional history represented by large numbers of manuscripts. But even after the process of classifying the manuscripts (called "recension") is complete, there is still much for the editor of Medieval Latin text to do, particularly if there is deep-seated corruption. The removal of corruption at this stage of the editorial process may require a genuinely inspired conjecture ex ope ingenii. Few editors have the innate gift of making inspired and convincing conjectures, but Giovanni Orlandi had that gift to an exceptional degree. His book reviews of published editions of Medieval Latin texts are filled with brilliant conjectures: and although the skill of making emendations is one which cannot be taught and cannot be learned, his many emendations provide us with a gold standard against which the conjectures of mere mortals may be measured. One of the permanent contributions to our field represented in Orlandi's collected papers is that of Medieval Latin versification (some 200 pages of his collected papers). He was able to demonstrate, for example, through the detailed scansion of 200 or more lines of forty poets, dating from the mid-twelfth century (Ysengrimus, Architrenius) to the fourteenth (Petrarch, Boccaccio, Gower), how poets successively abandoned the "ancient" structure of the hexameter (with cadences invariably made up of words of two and three syllables) in favour of the so-called "medieval" hexameter (with cadences incorporating tetrasyllables and even pentasyllables). The result of his indefatigable research on the medieval hexameter are contained in a series of tables, which record such features as spondees at the beginning of the verse, elision, diaeresis, productio at the caesura, etc. He subsequently applied his analytical method to poets of the so-called aetas Horatiana (second half of the tenth century through the early twelfth), basing his analysis on his scansion of 200 lines of each of fifty poets, and recording, in addition to the previously-mentioned criteria, the placement of all word-endings within the hexameter, and the occurrence of rhyme. It is perhaps needless to say that the amount of detail (and the work involved) is mindboggling; self-evidently his studies of metre present the most thorough account of the practices of Medieval Latin hexameter poets currently available to us; and his method could usefully serve as a model for anyone who would now analyse, say, the hexameter poets of the early Middle Ages (sixth to tenth centuries). Related to his analysis of hexameter poets is his analysis of Medieval Latin prose rhythm (some 150 pp. of his collected papers). He had reviewed Tore Janson's Prose Rhythm in Medieval Latin when it appeared in 1975 (repr. Scritti, pp.405-26), and he saw at once that Janson's statistical methods – which Janson had applied only to authors of the ninth century or later – could be used to solve long-standing problems pertaining to Latin prose authors of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages: to what extent did they employ the quantitive clausulae of classical antiquity, and to what extent were they influenced by the later rhythmical cursus, based on the rhythm rather than the quantities of the final syllables of a clause or sentence? The matter is crucial for an author such as Gildas, who straddles the antiquity and the Middle Ages. In order to answer this question, Orlandi recorded both the quantities and the rhythm of every sentence-ending in the De excidio Britanniae of Gildas, and then analysed the results according to the statistical method pioneered by Janson (the x^2 method); but in order to set the results in context, he analysed the prose of nine othe Late Latin authors (Orosius, Sidonius, Apollinaris, Cassiodorus, etc.). The results give us a brilliant new perspective on a crucial period in the development of Latin prose, and his tables are the indispensable starting-point for anyone who would approach this aspect of Medieval Latin prose style. The Scritti di filologia mediolatina were obviously not intended by Giovanni Orlandi to be a handbook of Medieval Latin. But in every conceivable way they do provide orientation and guidance in the most difficult aspects of our discipline. The Scritti represent, in my view, one of the most important contributions ever made to the field of Medieval Latin studies, and for future generations of scholars will take their place alongside the great foundation-stones of the discipline: The Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur of Max Manitius, the Mittelalterliche Studien of Bernhard Bischoff, the Handbuch zur lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters of Peter Stotz. Furthermore, the Scritti will serve as the memorial of a great scholar for people who never had the pleasure of knowing Giovanni Orlandi personally, and of drawing on his inexhaustible resources of good humour and intelligent scholarly advice, especially in matters of Latin philology. In the early 1980s Giovanni Orlandi was elected a Visiting Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge with his wife Isabella Gualandri (they later bought a small house in Cambridge in order to facilitate these longer periods of residence), and the two of them formed a focal point of discussions of matters of Latin philology and literature among a circle of Cambridge colleagues which – I am proud to say – included myself and Jill Mann, as well as Martin Brett, Michael Reeve, Peter Dronke, John Marenborn, and many others. In Cambridge he will be remembered for his irrepressible sense of humour and his immediate willingness to help others with scholarly problems. Understandably, therefore, he had a profound personal influence on scholars in Britain; but inevitably his greatest sphere of influence was in Italy. He trained a large number of Medieval Latinists who will be the leading lights of the next generation: Paolo Chiesa (his successor as Professor Ordinarius of Medieval and Humanist Latin in Milan), Anna Maria Fagnoni, Roberto Gamberini, Rossana Guglielmetti, Giovanni Paolo Maggioni, and many others. With a small group of Italian Medieval Latinists – Rino Avesani, Ferruccio Bertini, Giuseppe Cremascoli and Giuseppe Scalia, all led by the inspirational presence of Claudio Leonardi – he was a Founding Fellow (Socio fondatore) in 1980 of the Società Internazionale per lo Studio del Medioevo Latino (SISMEL), and its first Vice-President. As a member of the Comitato scientifico of SISMEL, he was instrumental in the creation of the journal Filologia mediolatina (edited by Paolo Chiesa, but inspired by Orlandi) and contributed to every volume of the journal since its inception. His scholarly standing was recognized by his election as a Fellow of the Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere (Milan) and as a Corresponding Fellow of the Accademia dei Lincei (Rome). But he himself was not interested in personal honours of this sort: his concern was solely with truth and accuracy in the study of Latin texts. His legacy to the field of Medieval Latin studies is an enormous one – both through his personal influence on those who knew him, and through the model provided by his huge corpus of publication. He will be remembered fondly wherever Medieval Latin language and literature are studied.

Michael Lapidge
The Journal of Medieval Latin 19 (2009), v-ix

Malcolm B. Parkes (1930 - 2013)

Malcolm Parkes, FSA, died on 10 May 2013 at the age of eighty-three. He had been a Fellow of Keble College from 1965 to 1997, teaching Old and Middle English. He also taught palaeography to generations of Oxford graduate students, in recognition of which he was appointed to a personal Chair in Palaeography at the University. A student of Neil Ker, the finest English manuscript scholar since Humfrey Wanley (first keeper of the Harley Collection, now at the British Library, in the early eighteenth century), Parkes' thesis was on the development of Secretary script and drawing on it, in 1969 he wrote the authoritative account of English cursive book hands.

His terminology and analysis have shaped countless editions of Middle English texts. His book Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West, was a superbly lucid treatment of a standard feature of all manuscripts that had seldom been explored, memorable for its plates showing how the same passage was punctuated in different ways at different dates and how that revealed the various ways in which it was understood. His Lyell lecture series entitled '"Their hands before our eyes": a closer look at scribes', not only offered a substantial prosopography of English scribes and the manuscripts they copied, it also revealed how palaeography could develop from giving names to different scripts to exploring the process of copying and the ways in which scribes envisioned the scripts which they chose to write. All of his books had exemplary glossaries, demonstrating a precision of terminology derived from a deep understanding of how best to put into words what a palaeographer sees and how he understands it. His distinction between Letter Shape and Letter Form, and his notions of Decorum and Chiaroscuro, offer new and better ways of understanding script. And his lavishly illustrated Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Keble College set a very high standard for the cataloguing of manuscripts. His work with Ian Doyle on the earliest manuscripts of The Canterbury Tales remains a classic, as does his lecture on 'The Scriptorium of Wearmouth-Jarrow' and his convincing dating of the Oxford manuscript of the Chanson de Roland (which some French scholars found hard to acknowledge as a book copied in England, and perhaps even in Oxford). His article on Compilatio and Ordinatio set experts on scholastic theology and Chaucer scholars looking at the same manuscripts. But above all he had the gift of the trenchant maxim. His first lectures on punctuation, for example, were titled 'What's the Point?'; and his explanation of the Rule of Gregory included the English comic song the Hokey Pokey ('You put the hair side in, you put the flesh side out, in out in out shake it all about…') His recognition that scribal discipline depended on a particular sense of monastic discipline, his suggestion that Peter Gumbert's analysis of ruling could be called 'The Rake's Progress', showed the creative of a master of Gaia Scienza. Where else does one learn 'It is easy to imitate another's letter-forms, it is much more difficult to imitate their spaces'?

There are many fine anecdotes to be shared. For example how he would talk manuscripts through the night and how he locked himself out of his Volvo (which was large enough to hold a complete set of the Codices Latini Antiquiores) in Reims. He explained to a passing gendarme: "Je suis un maître cambrioleur anglais, formé à Oxford" (I am an English master burglar, trained in Oxford). Best of all is the story of how he once fell asleep in lecture which he was giving, woke rapidly but did not know what the lecture was about, so he leaned over the shoulder of an earnest American student, read the last line of her notes aloud, and carried on. Like all great teachers, he had a sense of the theatre.

Malcolm had an international reputation and was elected to the Comité international de paléographie latine in 1986 and as a Corresponding Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America in 1992; as visiting Professor, he taught in Konstanz, Minneapolis and Harvard. He was tremendously generous with his time, patiently and carefully helping countless pupils and colleagues to express themselves more clearly and effectively. His work is a reminder that, in the age of digital palaeography and its supposedly scientific advances, there is no substitute for constant contact with manuscripts, and for an ability to do more than describe them. Tables of page sizes may enable us to distinguish books from different centres, but we are entitled to ask why a particular scribe or patron chose a particular format to copy a particular text. Sadly books are for reading, not just for looking at the scripts or the pictures.

Never content with descriptive palaeography, Malcolm Parkes asked many new questions and succeeded in answering them in ways that made the study of manuscripts at once more insightful and more exciting. At his funeral a Keble College Book of Hours which he had catalogued lay open on his coffin. Sit sibi terra levis.

David Ganz

Quelle:
http://medievalfragments.wordpress.com/2013/06/06/malcolm-b-parkes-palaeographer-1930-2013/ (Juni 2013)

Franz Quadlbauer (1924 - 2009)

Am 28. Januar 2009 verstarb, wenige Monate vor Vollendung seines 85. Lebensjahres, Franz Quadlbauer. Er war im Oktober 1970 auf den damals neu eingerichteten Lehrstuhl für Mittellateinische Philologie am Institut für Klassische Altertumskunde der Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel berufen worden. Hier wirkte er 21 Jahre lang bis zu seiner Emeritierung 1991.
Mit der Berufung Franz Quadlbauers erhielt das nachantike Latein erstmals eine eigene Kieler Fachvertretung, und so stand die frühe Phase seiner dortigen Tätigkeit ganz im Zeichen des Aufbaus: Es galt, den neuen Studiengang zu etablieren und die Institutsbibliothek fachspezifisch zu erweitern. Doch wußte Quadlbauer von Anbeginn das Kieler Mittellatein auch in seinen Forschungen eigengewichtig zu profilieren, indem er einen deutlichen Schwerpunkt auf die Untersuchung des Theoriegehalts mittelalterlicher Literatur legte. Strenggenommen bedeutete Untersuchung hier vielfach umsichtige Rekonstruktion, denn es herrscht zwar im lateinischen Mittelalter kein Mangel an literaturtheoretisch relevanten Textzeugnissen, doch formieren diese sich nicht bereits als konsistente Disziplin. Hier profitierte Quadlbauers Arbeit entscheidend von seiner immensen Belesenheit in den disparaten, z. T. nur handschriftlich verfügbaren Quellen, die es ihm erlaubte, einen begriffsgeschichtlichen Ansatz zu wählen, um so das mittelalterliche Material sowohl in dessen Bindungen an antike Traditionen, insbesondere solche der Rhetorik, wie auch nach seinem innovativen Potenzial darzustellen und literaturgeschichtlich einzuordnen. Viele Klärungen, die sich solcherart auf den Feldern von Stilllehre, Gattungstheorie oder Narratologie erzielen ließen, fanden Interesse auch in den benachbarten mediävistischen Philologien, so daß Quadlbauer früh schon den komparatistischen Aspekt des Fachs Mittellateinische Philologie akzentuieren konnte.
Franz Quadlbauer wurde am 24. Juni 1924 in St. Florian (Oberösterreich) geboren. Nach den Gymnasialjahren in Linz/ Donau nahm er zum Sommersemester 1944 sein Studium der Klassischen Philologie an der Universität Wien auf, das er nach Kriegsende in Graz fortsetzte, wo er im März 1949 mit der Dissertation ‚Plinius der Jüngere und der Begriff der erhabenen Rede' zum Dr. phil. Promoviert wurde. In der Folgezeit unterrichtete Quadlbauer bis 1963 im Grazer Schuldienst, wobei er sein wissenschaftliches Forschungsinteresse nicht aus den Augen verlor: 1957/58 ließ er sich beurlauben, um ein Stipendium als ‚postgraduate student' in London und Oxford wahrzunehmen. Dort sammelte er u. a. Material für seine großangelegte Studie, die 1962 in den Sitzungsberichten der Wiener Akademie unter dem Titel ‚Die antike Theorie der genera dicendi im lateinischen Mittelalter' publiziert wurde und mit welcher der Verfasser sich im April 1966 an der Universität Salzburg habilitierte. In der Arbeit leistet Quadlbauer im besten Sinne Grundlagenforschung, und zu recht wird sie bis heute in Untersuchungen zur mittelalterlichen Stiltheorie viel zitiert. Sie darf bleibend als eines der (insgesamt nur wenigen) Grundbücher der Mittellateinischen Philologie gelten. Daneben traten in kontinuierlicher Folge zahlreiche durchweg einläßliche Aufsätze in führenden Fachzeitschriften oder Festschrift-Beiträge, mit denen er Kollegen seine Verbundenheit bekundete.
Zum Zeitpunkt seiner Habilitation war Quadlbauer bereits beim Wärterbuch-Projekt des ‚Thesaurus linguae Latinae' in München beschäftigt, von 1963 bis 1967 als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, ab 1967 bis zu seiner Berufung nach Kiel 1970 als Redaktor. In seinen Kieler Jahren wirkte er nicht nur in Lehre und Forschung, sondern er war stets auch im akademischen Leben von Fakultät und Institut, an welchem er zudem als Direktor fungierte, präsent, zurückhaltend, wie es seinem Wesen entsprach, dabei von allseits geschätzter Kollegialität. In der internationalen Wissenschaft, besonders der Rhetorikforschung, hatte seine Stimme Gewicht; in den 80er Jahren zählte er zum Herausgebergremium des angesehenen Fachorgans ‚Rhetorica'. Nach seiner Emeritierung meldete sich Franz Quadlbauer bis ins hohe Alter weiterhin mit Publikationen zu seinen Spezialthemen zu Wort, nunmehr aus Seekirchen bei Salzburg, wo er mit seiner Familie, Gattin, Tochter und Enkelin, heimisch war.

Udo Kühne
Mittellateinischen Jahrbuch 44 (2009) 519-520

Roger E. Reynolds (1936 - 2014)

Link zum Nekrolog auf der Page des Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies

Paul Gerhard Schmidt (1937 - 2010)

Die Erlanger Mittellateiner trauern um Paul Gerhard Schmidt, der unerwartet am 25. September in Freiburg verstarb. Durch seine breiten wissenschaftlichen Interessen vertrat der aus der Nähe von Frankfurt an der Oder stammende Schmidt das Fach Mittellatein und Neulatein in seiner ganzen Bandbreite, wie schon seine frühen Schriften beweisen: die Dissertation (Göttingen 1962) widmete er den "Supplementen lateinischer Prosa in der Neuzeit", die Habilitation (Göttingen 1970) aber dem "Architrenius" von Johannes de Alta Villa (um 1180). Nach einer Etappe in Marburg, wo er den Lehrstuhl von 1978 bis 1989 innehatte, unterrichtete er bis zu seiner Emeritierung in Freiburg. Schmidt war ein ausgezeichneter Kenner der Paläographie und der in mittellateinischen Kreisen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg vernachlässigten spätmittelalterlichen Literatur und widmete wichtige Studien und Editionen u.a. auch der Visionsliteratur, dem Epos, der Hagiographie, der Rezeption römischer Klassiker im Mittelalter und der conflictus-Literatur. Mt ihm verliert die europäische Mediävistik einen glänzenden Anwalt des Mittellateins und einen großen Förderer des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuches, auch im Ausland, wo er ein gern gesehener Gast war.

Michele C. Ferrari

Konrad B. Vollmann (1933 - 2012)

Konrad Vollmann war von 1993 bis 1999 Ordinarius für Lateinische Philologie des Mittelalters an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. Die Stationen seines Wirkens, St. Ottilien, Rom, München, Regensburg, Tübingen, Eichstätt und München, bezeichnen zugleich Perspektiven seiner breiten Interessen und Kompetenzen. Einem Studium der Philosophie und Theologie, das er mit seiner theologischen Dissertation zum Thema "Studien zum Prizillianismus" abschloss, fügte er das Studium der Klassischen Philologie, Germanistik und Lateinischen Philologie des Mittelalters an und absolvierte 1965 und 1967 das Erste und Zweite Staatsexamen. Seine akademische Lehrtätigkeit begann er in der germanistischen Mediävistik, um sich dann zunehmend auf die Lateinische Philologie des Mittelalters zu konzentrieren, für die er 1981 mit einer Arbeit über den ‚Ruodlieb' in Tübingen die venia legendi erwarb. Die Interdisziplinarität seiner Studien sowie seine außergewöhnliche Begabung zu kongenialen Übersetzungen ließen ihn in seinen akademischen Lehrveranstaltungen und seinen Publikationen zu einem geistreichen und umfassend gebildeten Vermittler der mittelalterlichen Welt an gegenwärtige Leser und Hörer werden und zugleich das Gespräch zwischen den mediävistischen Disziplinen engagiert fördern.

Mark-Aeilko Aris (München) und Carmen Cardelle de Hartmann (Zürich)

Peter Walsh (1923 - 2013)

One of that generation of post-war intellectuals who rose to the top of the academic tree in spite of humble childhood circumstances, Peter Walsh was a Latinist of huge range – the author of definitive studies of texts from the classical period, but also a scholar and translator who specialised in medieval Latin. PG Walsh was born Patrick Walsh in Accrington, Lancashire in 1923. He disliked the name, opting for Peter instead, even though he had a brother of the same name. His father, also Peter, worked in menial jobs and his family of 11 shared a two-up, two down house. Walsh won scholarships to Preston Catholic College and then to Liverpool University, where he took a First in Classics. After service in Italy and Palestine in the Intelligence Corps (to which he was transferred after recording the lowest ever score in RAF practical tests) he taught in the universities of Dublin, Edinburgh, and Glasgow, where he was appointed Professor of Humanity in 1972. By now he had already published two revolutionary works of classical criticism – Livy (1961) and The Roman Novel (1970). He was also an accomplished medievalist. On being appointed to a personal chair at Edinburgh his inaugural lecture was on the earthy love lyrics of Carmina Burana, and he also produced an important edition of Capellanus's The Art of Courtly Love. He enjoyed spells as a visiting professor at Toronto, Yale, North Carolina and Georgetown, often lecturing on anti-feminism in the literature of the period. Influenced by his father, who had had a mystical experience after being wounded at the Somme, Walsh was a devout Catholic. This was one reason for his interest in patristic writers such as St Paulinus, St Thomas Aquinas and St Augustine. He received a papal decoration for this work. In his retirement, he lived happily with Eileen, his wife of nearly 60 years. His work rate did not drop. He translated The Golden Ass, The Satyricon and several other texts for the Oxford World's Classics and undertook a new version of Augustine' s gigantic The City of God for Oxbow Books. He completed 16 of the 22 books before the effects of Parkinson's Disease weakened him. He was at his desk on the day before his death, however, and was thrilled by the generous international warmth that greeted Harvard's publication of his anthology of Latin hymns. He was widely known as an inspiring teacher, a generous friend, a supportive colleague, and a gentle paterfamilias. He is survived by his wife, five children and 18 grandchildren.

Stephen Walsh